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  • br Characteristics of participants br Participants

    2022-05-10


    Characteristics of participants.
    Participants
    Demographic characteristics Women with a history Women without a
    of breast cancer history of breast cancer
    Age [mean years [SD]
    Relationship status [n (%)]
    Single
    Highest level of education
    Blue collar
    Family income (CAD) [n
    Aerobic physical activity
    3.2. Diurnal cortisol
    Fig. 2 displays the plots of the diurnal L-Glutamine fluctuation pattern across five time points by cancer experience and aerobic PA frequency.
    Fig. 1. Average diurnal cortisol AUCi scores for
    participants by cancer experience and aerobic
    PA frequency. On the left side (PA1), no/low PA
    plots participation in PA ≤ one time per week
    and moderate/high PA participation in
    PA ≥two times per week. On the right side
    (PA2), no/low PA indicates participation in
    PA ≤three times per week and moderate/high
    PA participation in PA ≥ four times per week.
    3.3. Reactive cortisol
    Fig. 2. Diurnal cortisol profiles of participants with and without a history of BC by aerobic PA frequency. On the left side (PA1), no/low PA plots participation in PA ≤ one time per week and moderate/high PA participation in PA ≥ two times per week. On the right side (PA2), no/low PA reflects participation in PA ≤ three times per week and moderate/high PA participation in PA ≥four times per week.
    Fig. 3. Average reactive cortisol AUCi scores for participants by cancer experience and aerobic PA frequency. On the left side (PA1), no/low PA shows participation in PA ≤one time per week and moderate/high PA participation in PA ≥two times per week. On the right side (PA2), no/low PA shows participation in PA ≤three times per week and moderate/high PA participation in PA ≥four times per week.
    Fig. 4. Reactive cortisol profiles of participants
    with and without a history of cancer by aerobic
    PA frequency. On the left side (PA1), no/low
    PA shows participation in PA ≤ one time per
    week and moderate/high PA participation in
    PA ≥two times per week. On the right side
    PA ≤three times per week and moderate/high
    PA participation in PA ≥ four times per week.
    TSST.
    4. Discussion
    The specific objectives of the present study were to assess whether aerobic PA is associated with diurnal and reactive cortisol patterns, and whether the association between aerobic PA and cortisol patterns dif-fered between women with and without a history of BC. In regards to our first objective, our hypothesis that women who engaged in aerobic PA more frequently (moderate/high PA group) would exhibit sig-nificantly less abnormalities in their cortisol patterns than those who engaged in aerobic PA less frequently or not at all (no/low PA group) was not supported as diurnal and reactive cortisol patterns did not differ statistically across aerobic PA groups. In regards to our second objective, a marginally significant (p = .05) cancer experience by aerobic PA interaction was observed when analyzing diurnal cortisol data suggesting that women without a history of BC who engaged in aerobic PA more frequently (moderate/high PA group) had a lower cortisol level at awakening and 30 min after awakening than women with a history of BC. Moreover, the association between aerobic PA and reactive cortisol patterns appeared to differ statistically based on wo-men’s cancer experience (i.e., history vs. no history of BC) when using the PA1 cutoff, whereby women without a history of BC had a sig-nificantly higher overall cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor (both in terms of AUCi and time point fluctuations) than women with a history of BC.