• 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2021-03
  • br cell line samples is background staining


    cell line samples is background staining of the scaffold, not positive staining for mineralization. The background staining of the scaffold was determined by comparing the samples to uncultured scaffold controls that were stained with Alizarin Red (Fig. S10).
    To confirm that the observed mineralization was bone mineral and not pathological calcification, osteocalcin expression was assessed with IF. Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous protein found in bone matrix that plays a role in bone mineralization [70]. Analysis of the osteocalcin expression for PC-3, C4-2B and 22Rv1 cell lines on 2, 4, and 6 wt% CA scaffolds (Fig. 9) demonstrated that C4-2B and 22Rv1 scaffold cultures expressed osteocalcin, while PC-3 cultures did not. None of the 2D cultures for any cell line expressed osteocalcin, demonstrating that the osteocalcin expression was promoted by scaffold culture. This confirms the presence of mineralized bone matrix for the osteoblastic C4-2B and 22Rv1 cultures, and indicates that the osteolytic PC-3 cultures did not exhibit mineralized bone matrix. Osteocalcin expression demonstrates the presence of bone matrix and confirms that the mineralization ob-served with SEM and Alizarin Red analysis is bone mineral and not pathological calcification.
    The mineralization results agree with the literature. PC-3 Malonyl Coenzyme A in-duced osteoblast-like cells to express osteoclastogenesis factors after co-culture [63] or when cultured with PC-3 conditioned media [71]. The osteolytic behavior of PC-3 cells was demonstrated by injecting PC-3 cells into humanized tissue engineered bone constructs implanted in mice, where the bone was resorbed [42]. Conversely, C4-2B cells en-hanced the mineralization of hematopoietic progenitor cells [43]. Ad-ditionally, the mineralization in the C4-2B cultures and the osteoblastic phenotype may contribute to the downregulation of PSA expression observed in the C4-2B scaffold cultures. PSA expression for C4-2 cells was downregulated when cultured with conditioned media (CM) from osteoblast cell lines due to soluble factors in CM [72].
    This study demonstrated that osteoblastic and osteolytic PCa cell lines responded in different manners to CA scaffolds with different stiffnesses. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of scaffold stiffness on PCa cells when co-cultured with fibroblasts or other cells found in the PCa tumor microenvironment. Additionally, incorporation of proteins into or conjugation on to the CA scaffolds may provide a greater response to scaffold stiffness by enabling integrin binding. Since the CA scaffold cultures revealed differences in the PCa cell line re-sponses, the CA scaffolds have potential for use to evaluate patient-derived primary PCa cells. These CA scaffold cultures may be used to determine the expression of phenotypic markers and screen prospective chemotherapies, allowing these cultures to supplement pathology data from tumor biopsies. Further research is needed to determine if CA scaffold cultures recapitulate the responses of the patient tumor to
    Fig. 8. Alizarin Red staining to assess mineralization. a) Comparison of PC-3, C4-2B and 22Rv1 cell lines on 4 wt% CA scaffolds at 10 d. Dark red staining denotes mineralization, indicated with arrows. b) Quantification of Alizarin Red staining in scaffolds compared to uncultured scaffold controls, * denotes statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the Web version of this article.)
    therapies, which would potentially enable their use in personalized cancer treatment.
    4. Conclusions